Mary Galal
Voorhees High School

Course Outline

Geography and Human Geography (Chapter 1)      (Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives)

  1. What is human geography?
  2. Basic terminology of geography – globalization, spatial distribution, 5 themes of geography, perception of places, patterns, distribution, scale, location (absolute and relative), environmental determinism, cultural landscape, sense of place, built environment, possibilism, place, centrality, GIS, diffusion (expansion, contagious, hierarchical, stimulus, relocation), cultural barrier, time-distance decay, mental maps, remote sensing, regions (functional, formal, perceptual), mental maps, sequent occupance, hearths, independent invention
  3. Geographic map skills
  4. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit One
    • Making a world map out of an orange
    • “Driving Miss Daisy: Analyzing how you get around in town.”
    • “Mental Mapping: What the heck is wrong with my brain?”
    • Video – “Why are we changing maps?”
    • “Regions – Gotta Do the Zelinsky” and “Did the South Move?”
    • Blog – student discussion on Unit 1F.
  5. EXAM I – Multiple Choice and Free Response

II. Population Patterns and Processes (Chapters 2-3) (Population & Migration)

  1. Population Models and Theories – Demographic Transition Model, Gravity Model, Malthusian population issues
  2. Models – What is a model? Why do geographers use models?
  3. Population Policies – pro-natal and anti-natal policies, case studies from China, India, Japan and Indonesia
  4. Migration – internal, external, forced and reasons for migration
  5. Population terminology – distribution, density, arithmetic and physiologic density, dot maps, megalopolis census, demography, dependency ratio, J-curve, fertility, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality, child mortality, natural increase, sex ratios, negative population growth, eugenics, carrying capacity, cohort, natal, demographic momentum, exponential growth, doubling time, age-sex diagrams, mortality types/rates, step migration, chain migration, intervening opportunity, immigration (internal, external, forced, international), transhumance, activity space, emigration, push/pull factors, refugees, guest workers, quotas, history of US migration
    • Fun times with Hans Rosling!!!
    • Choropleth Maps – “Mapping population issues in Arkansas”
    • Field Work with AP Environmental Science – Cemetery Study – collecting, collating and analyzing mortality data
    • Age-Sex Diagrams – “Using age-sex diagrams” via various web sites such as,, and others
    • Demographic Calculations – calculating RNI, total population, etc.
  6. EXAM II – Multiple Choice and Free Response

III. Cultural Geography – Geographies of Culture, Language, Religion, Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexuality (Chapters 4-7)            (Cultural Patterns and Processes)

Geographies of Local (Folk) and Pop Culture and Cultural Landscapes

  1. Cultural Terms – folk and pop culture, local culture, material and nonmaterial culture, built environment, acculturation, assimilation, cultural appropriation, neolocalism, ethnic neighborhoods, commodification, distance decay, time-space compression, placelessness, glocalization, maladaptive diffusion, sequent occupance, architecture, folk foods
  2. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Identity and Sexuality – changing US populations of race, racial segregation in cities, invasion and succession, identity and space, cultural identity, sexuality and space, queer theory, women, gender issues, power and space, barrioization
  3. Language terminology – standard language, dialect, groups, families, isogloss, language (family, group, divergence & convergence), Renfrew hypothesis, Indo-European languages
  4. Language theories & diffusion – agricultural, dispersal & conquest theories
  5. Modern language issues – lingua franca, Creole, pidgin, multi-lingual states, sound shifts, Esperanto, linguistic transition zones, official languages,
  6. Linguistic revival, extinct languages, languages laws
  7. Toponymy – post-colonial, postrevolution, memorial, commodification
  8. Difficulties in mapping cultural regions – Zelinsky
  9. Religion terminology – secularism, animism, syncretism, ethnic religion, universalizing religion, proselytizing, monotheism, polytheism, Shamanism, diaspora, sacred sites, pilgrimage, geomancy, reincarnation, social distance
  10. Political Conflict and Religion – ethnic cleansing, enclave, exclave, jihad, fundamentalism, extremism, Israel and Palestine, Northern Ireland, former Yugoslavia, Horn of Africa
  11. Christianity (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, others), Islam (Sunni, Shi’a, Sufi), Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), Buddhism (Theravada, Mahayana), Sikhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shintoism and other religions
  12. Sacred architecture, sacred space, sacred directions, burial practices, Feng Shui,
  13. Issues not in the primary textbook – Characteristics of Popular and Folk Culture, Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, Homogeneity, Heterogeneity, Material and Nonmaterial Culture, Housing types
  14. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit Three
  • “Toponyms: Seriously! Possum Grape and Booger Hollow?”
  • Video – “In French, Please!!”
  • Pop –vs- Soda – students use the webpage to attempt to define cultural regions using linguistic differences among users of soft drinks
  • “English Will Be the Global Lingua Franca of the Future” – Classroom debate (pro and con) over this statement
  • “Is Your Religion What You Think It Is?” – Students use a webpage to learn about 27 different religions
  • “Re-mapping Africa: Creating non-Colonial Boundaries” – Students work in groups to create new political boundaries in Africa using cultural data. Students decide if boundaries should be based more on ethnolinguistic, religious, tribal and/or other cultural characteristics

K. EXAM III – Multiple Choice and Free Response

IV. The Political Imprint (Chapter 8) (Political Organization of Space)

  1. Political terminology – sovereignty, territorial integrity, boundary types, evolution of boundaries, territorial morphology types, nation, state, nation-state, stateless nation, Conference of Berlin, mercantilism, Peace of Westphalia, irredentism, enclave, exclave, theocracy, landlocked, centripetal/centrifugal forces, unitary/federal states, core, periphery, semiperiphery, tribalism, colonialism, neocolonialism, electoral geography, gerrymandering, reapportionment, majority-minority district, forward capital, primate city, median-line principle, EEZs, law of the sea, devolution, supranationalism, geopolitics, gateway state, Nunavut, raison d’être, shatterbelt, Balkanization, annexation, confederation,
  2. Territorial Morphology and Boundaries – all terms
  3. Political Theories – Heartland, Rimland, Organic, World Systems Analysis
  4. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit Four
  • “Mapping Electoral Change” – Students map electoral changes using web resources. Major focus during national elections.
  • “Devolution and Supranationalism” – Students read and use case studies to apply these termsE. EXAM IV – Multiple Choice and Free Response

V. Agriculture (Chapter 11) (Agricultural and Rural Land Use)

  1.  Agricultural terminology – organic agriculture, economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary), plant/animal domestication, hunting/gathering, subsistence farming, shifting agriculture (milpa, swidden, patch, slash and burn), land survey systems (metes & bounds, long-lot, township-&-range, rectangular land), nucleated and dispersed settlements, plantation agriculture, extractive activities, luxury crops, staple crops, cash crops, dairying, livestock, ranching, Mediterranean agriculture, organic agriculture, truck farm, market gardening, yields, double-cropping, transhumance, illegal drug crops, sustainable agriculture, aquaculture, favela, debt-for-nature swap, intertillage, feedlot, loss of productive farmland
  2. Agricultural Revolutions – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, biotechnology, biogenetics, cloning, genetically modified foods
  3. Intensive and Extensive Agriculture
  4. Plant Origins
  5. Agricultural Models and Major Concepts – von Thünen’s Model, Agribusiness, Vertical Integration, Commercial Agriculture, Green Revolution, Organic Agriculture, Genetically Modified Foods/Organisms (GMF/O)
  6. Geographies of Illegal Drugs and Alcohol
  7. Gender issues in agriculture
  8. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit Five
    • “Where is What Grown?” – Students use the 21st Edition of Goode’s Atlas to ascertain what crops are grown where and in what quantities
    • videos – corn, potatoes, genomes and cotton
    • “Videos” – The Butcher – study of meat processing and the rise of agribusiness and Harvesters – study of modern agricultural mechanization and hybridization of crops to allow for machine harvest
    • “Videos” – The Meatrix I, II and II½, Grocery Store Wars
    • “Field Trip” – time and logistics permitting – students visit a Tyson chicken slaughterhouse to see applications of agricultural geographic conceptsH. EXAM V – Multiple Choice and Free Response

VI.        Urban Geography (Chapters 9) (Cities and Urban Land Use)

  1. Urban terminology – urban morphology, agricultural surplus, urban hierarchy, urban function, Sunbelt phenomenon, hinterland, site, situation, central business district, suburbs, exurbs, edge cities, hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis, megalopolis, redlining, blockbusting, white flight, gated communities, tear-downs, McMansions, covenants, zoning, gentrification, NIMBY, DINKs, suburbanization, rank-size rule, basic/nonbasic sectors, multiplier effect, urban specialization, range of sale (economic reach), threshold, nesting, centrality, megacities, world cities, tenement, census, in-filling, sprawl, bid rent, peak land value intersection, informal economy
  2. Urban Models – Central Place Theory, Concentric Zone, Sector, Multiple Nuclei, Urban Realms, World City, Latin American, Southeast Asian, African
  3. Gender Issues in Urban Geography
  4. Additional Texts will be used in this unit
  5. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit Six
    • “Who is Moving Where?” – students study shifting U.S. urban patterns using
    • Video – Veggie Tales (did he say, “Veggie Tales?!) – Gated Communities
    • “Three Classic Models of Urban Structure” – students compare and contrast the three classic urban models
    • “Urban Geography using the NFL, NHL, MLB and the NBA” – students map professional sports franchises in 1950 and again today to see the shifts in urban population and patterns.
    • “Video” – Power of Place Video segments on Boston and Chicago

F. EXAM VI – Multiple Choice and Free Response

VII.  Economic Geography – Development and Industry and Services (Chapters 10, 12) (Industrialization and Development)

  1. Development terminology – commodity chain, GNP, GDP, GNI, formal and informal economy, HDI, PPP, neo-colonialism, barriers of economic development, export processing zones, maquiladoras, special economic zone (SEZ), NAFTA, government policy and development, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), microcredit
  2. Industry and Services terminology – industrial revolution, locational interdependence, location theory (agglomeration, deglomeration, transportation costs, labor costs, raw materials), globalization, deindustrialization, outsourcing, offshore, Fordist, post-Fordist, just-in-time delivery, global division of labor, intermodal connections, break-of-bulk point,
  3. Additional Texts – comparative advantage, friction of distance, distance decay, footloose industries, location theory, substitution principle, variable costs, bid rent, zonal costs, isotim, inputs, economic sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary), weight-gaining and weight-losing industries
  4. Economic/Industrial/Development Models and Theories – Weber’s Least Cost Theory, Dependency Theory, Rostow’s Modernization Model, Liberal Model, World Systems (three-tier)Theory, Structuralist Theory, Hotelling’s Model
  5. Global Shifts in Economic Geography
  6. Examples of Geographic Activities for Unit Seven
  • Exercise – “Where Do I Manufacture?” – Isotim exercise where students have to calculate the best location for a manufacturing plant
  • Exercise – “Thirsty Town” – Where would a beer or cola manufacturer locate?
  • Exercise – “Why Don’t We Have a Buffalo Wild Wings?”
  • “Outsourcing – Who is doing what and where?” – A look at global outsourcing
  • Exercise – “Transport and Shipping Modes” – An exercise for students to determine what products are shipped cheapest by which transport mode
  • “Video” – Outsourcing
  • “Video” – Economic Geography – Trade

F. EXAM VII – Multiple Choice and Free Response