Name: ______________________________________ Date: _____________
RVCC - Modules 23-25 Review Questions


1.
A researcher wants to bring forth an involuntary response from a subject. In other words, he wants to _______ a response.
A.
elicit
B.
emote
C.
emit
D.
create


2.
In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
A.
UCS; CS
B.
UCR; CR
C.
CS; UCS
D.
CR; UCR
E.
UCS; CR


3.
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n):
A.
unconditioned stimulus.
B.
primary response.
C.
conditioned stimulus.
D.
immediate response.


4.
Conditioning is the process of
A.
discrimination.
B.
spontaneous recovery.
C.
learning associations.
D.
observational learning.


5.
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
A.
unconditioned stimulus.
B.
primary reinforcer.
C.
conditioned stimulus.
D.
immediate reinforcer.


6.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A.
UR; CR
B.
CS; UR
C.
US; UR
D.
CS; US


7.
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
A.
generalization.
B.
negative reinforcement.
C.
stimulus predictability.
D.
spontaneous recovery.


8.
Vicarious learning is:
A.
learning from past experiences.
B.
learning that takes place in the unconscious mind.
C.
learning due to through watching others.
D.
learning that takes place during hypnosis.


9.
Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
A.
positive
B.
negative
C.
secondary
D.
partial
E.
delayed


10.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A.
UR; CR
B.
CS; UR
C.
US; UR
D.
CS; US


11.
According to principles of operant conditioning, a response will undergo extinction if the response is:
A.
too difficult to maintain  
B.
no longer reinforced        
C.
reflexive in nature        
D.
reinforced too often


12.
B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
A.
shaping.
B.
observational learning.
C.
the law of effect.
D.
latent learning.


13.
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)
A.
positive reinforcer.
B.
unconditioned response.
C.
conditioned response.
D.
negative reinforcer.


14.
The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers.
A.
positive
B.
negative
C.
primary
D.
conditioned


15.
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A.
variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
B.
fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
C.
fixed-ratio; variable-interval
D.
fixed-interval; variable-ratio


16.
The use of physical punishment may
A.
lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
B.
model aggression as a way of coping with problems.
C.
lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
D.
have all of these results.


17.
Every 50 minutes, the class takes a break if their behavior is appropriate. They are on a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
A.
variable-interval   
B.
variable-ratio
C.
fixed-interval
D.
fixed-ratio


18.
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A.
variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
B.
fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
C.
fixed-ratio; variable-interval
D.
fixed-interval; variable-ratio


19.
A variable-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):
A.
specified time period has elapsed.
B.
unpredictable number of responses has been made.
C.
specified number of responses has been made.
D.
unpredictable time period has elapsed.


20.
Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.
A.
increase; decrease
B.
decrease; increase
C.
decrease; decrease
D.
have no effect on; decrease


21.
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ in order to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.
A.
mirror neurons
B.
modeling
C.
a cognitive map
D.
shaping


22.
Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.
A.
decrease; increase
B.
increase; decrease
C.
increase; increase
D.
have no effect on; decrease


23.
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of:
A.
successive approximations.
B.
delayed reinforcement.
C.
classical conditioning.
D.
secondary reinforcement.


24.
Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
A.
respondent behavior.
B.
prosocial behavior.
C.
operant conditioning.
D.
observational learning.


25.
Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.
A.
spontaneous recovery
B.
mirror neurons
C.
instinctive drift
D.
operant chambers


26.
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
A.
delayed reinforcement.
B.
observational learning.
C.
respondent behavior.
D.
shaping.