Name: __________________________ Date: _____________


1.
A researcher wants to bring forth an involuntary response from a subject. In other words, he wants to _______ a response.
A.
elicit
B.
emote
C.
emit
D.
create


2.
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
A.
conditioned response.
B.
unconditioned stimulus.
C.
unconditioned response.
D.
conditioned stimulus.


3.
At the beginning of his last vacation, Mike fell off of a horse. He developed a fear of riding horses and did not get back on one for a while. He eventually got over his fear. He finally does ride horses again, but if he experiences spontaneous recovery he will:
A.
experience some fear of horses
B.
find that his riding skills have not left him
C.
like horseback riding more than ever
D.
demand that he ride the same horse again


4.
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
A.
it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
B.
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
C.
it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
D.
all learning depends on reinforcement.


5.
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
A.
generalization.
B.
negative reinforcement.
C.
stimulus predictability.
D.
spontaneous recovery.


6.
The taste of food and a drink of water are both ________ reinforcers.
A.
positive
B.
negative
C.
primary
D.
conditioned


7.
Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.
A.
increase; decrease
B.
decrease; increase
C.
decrease; decrease
D.
have no effect on; decrease


8.
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
A.
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
B.
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
C.
immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
D.
reinforcement; punishment


9.
Every 50 minutes, the class takes a break if their behavior is appropriate. They are on a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
A.
variable-interval   
B.
variable-ratio
C.
fixed-interval
D.
fixed-ratio


10.
The use of physical punishment may
A.
lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
B.
model aggression as a way of coping with problems.
C.
lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
D.
have all of these results.


11.
The method of removing a phobia is best suited by creating an anxiety hierarchy in which the phobia is addressed in a slow, methodical manner. This method of treatment is called:
A.
flooding
B.
systematic desensitization
C.
cognitive mapping
D.
free association


12.
According to the principles of operant conditioning, a response will undergo extinction if the response is:
A.
too difficult to maintain
B.
no longer reinforced
C.
no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
D.
reinforced too often


13.
Dakota operantly conditions his dog to bring him his slippers. He sounds a bell, has the dog bring the slippers and then reinforces the dog with a biscuit. One day, a church bell sounds outside, however, the dog ignores it and does not bring the slippers. By ignoring a bell that is different, the dog is displaying:
A.
discrimination
B.
shaping
C.
intermittent reinforcement
D.
generalization


14.
In operant conditioning, the __________ comes before the __________.
A.
response; stimulus
B.
spontaneous recovery; extinction
C.
generalization; discrimination
D.
stimulus; response


15.
Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
A.
respondent behavior.
B.
prosocial behavior.
C.
operant conditioning.
D.
observational learning.


16.
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
A.
the law of effect.
B.
spontaneous recovery.
C.
observational learning.
D.
extrinsic motivation.


17.
Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
A.
punishing.
B.
discriminating.
C.
modeling.
D.
generalizing.


18.
Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.
A.
spontaneous recovery
B.
mirror neurons
C.
instinctive drift
D.
operant chambers


19.
The retention of encoded information over time refers to
A.
effortful processing.
B.
retrieval.
C.
rehearsal.
D.
storage.


20.
Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.
A.
working memory
B.
sensory memory
C.
rehearsal memory
D.
long-term memory


21.
The effortful processing of information
A.
typically interferes with the capacity to think creatively.
B.
cannot easily be suppressed and inhibited.
C.
can become automatic through practice.
D.
occurs less frequently among adults than children.


22.
Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
A.
the spacing effect.
B.
the serial position effect.
C.
chunking.
D.
automatic processing.


23.
The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of
A.
automatic processing.
B.
rehearsal.
C.
chunking.
D.
the peg-word system.


24.
Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of
A.
long-term memory.
B.
semantic encoding.
C.
rosy retrospection.
D.
the peg-word system.


25.
Visually associating five items needed from the grocery store with mental images of a bun, a shoe, a tree, a door, and a hive best illustrates the use of
A.
the spacing effect.
B.
sensory memory.
C.
rosy retrospection.
D.
the peg-word system.


26.
According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those
A.
at the beginning of the list.
B.
at the end of the list.
C.
at the end and in the middle of the list.
D.
in the middle of the list.


27.
Although you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ________ encoding of the answer was ________.
A.
semantic; automatic
B.
visual; automatic
C.
semantic; effortful
D.
visual; effortful


28.
One way to increase the amount of information in memory is to group it into larger, familiar units. This process is referred to as
A.
consolidating.
B.
organization.
C.
encoding.
D.
chunking.


29.
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of
A.
the serial position effect.
B.
the peg-word system.
C.
semantic encoding.
D.
sensory memory.


30.
Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to ________ memory.
A.
sensory
B.
short-term
C.
flashbulb
D.
implicit


31.
Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze and then removed pieces of their cortexes. He observed that storage of their maze memories
A.
was restricted to their right cerebral hemispheres.
B.
was restricted to their left and right frontal lobes.
C.
was restricted to their left and right occipital lobes.
D.
was not restricted to specific regions of the cortex.


32.
One effect of long-term potentiation is that
A.
the sending neuron needs additional prompting to release its neurotransmitters.
B.
more glucose energy is made available to fuel brain activity.
C.
a receiving neuron's receptor sites are increased.
D.
the memory trace can be tracked to specific sites in the brain.


33.
By shrinking the hippocampus, prolonged stress is most likely to inhibit the process of
A.
source misattribution.
B.
amnesia.
C.
long-term memory formation.
D.
protein production.


34.
Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________.
A.
brainstem; hippocampus
B.
explicit memory; implicit memory
C.
automatic processing; effortful processing
D.
short-term memory; long-term memory


35.
Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.
A.
short-term; long-term
B.
long-term; short-term
C.
implicit; explicit
D.
explicit; implicit


36.
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used?
A.
recognition
B.
rehearsal
C.
recall
D.
relearning


37.
When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as powerful
A.
encoding devices.
B.
iconic memories.
C.
sensory memories.
D.
retrieval cues.


38.
After his last drinking spree, Fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakim's pattern of recall best illustrates
A.
priming.
B.
mnemonics.
C.
encoding effects.
D.
state-dependent memory.


39.
Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful memories of instances when he thought his girlfriend was flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates
A.
source misattribution.
B.
context effects.
C.
mood-congruent memory.
D.
priming.


40.
The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely due to
A.
encoding failure.
B.
retrieval failure.
C.
retroactive interference.
D.
source amnesia.


41.
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
A.
slow and subsequently stays slow.
B.
slow and subsequently speeds up.
C.
rapid and subsequently stays rapid.
D.
rapid and subsequently slows down.


42.
An experiment demonstrated that people who were better at forgetting irrelevant word pairs were good at remembering relevant word pairs. Their forgetting was adaptive because it reduced
A.
interference.
B.
sensory memory.
C.
the spacing effect.
D.
working memory.


43.
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates
A.
source amnesia.
B.
proactive interference.
C.
motivated forgetting.
D.
the spacing effect.


44.
Among contemporary memory researchers, increasing numbers think that ______ rarely, if ever, occurs.
A.
proactive interference
B.
automatic processing
C.
source amnesia
D.
repression


45.
Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated
A.
proactive interference.
B.
mnemonic devices.
C.
the spacing effect.
D.
the misinformation effect.


46.
As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates
A.
repression.
B.
proactive interference.
C.
implicit memory.
D.
source amnesia.


47.
Research reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that
A.
people rarely recall memories of long-forgotten events.
B.
most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded in long-term memory.
C.
only those memories recovered with the help of a professional psychotherapist are likely to be reliable.
D.
extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered.